Taken into account as Javier Riojas, points out that Latin America is the most humid region of the world. Rivers poured into the sea 30% of the total number of inland waters flowing there; the continent is also what is considered the driest region of the ORB: the Atacama desert where, it says, it has never rained. A refined gradient is located between both ends, setting up the most original environmental spectrum in the world. This great diversity of ecosystems and habitats explain why Latin America is the region of greatest biodiversity on the planet, and also the area of highest incidence of endemism (species that are only found in that site) in the world. According to the most recent and reliable estimates, the number of inhabitants plant species is estimated at 180,000 area, figure that it is four times greater than that of tropical Africa and Madagascar together, two of the regions of the world with more biological diversity. Even when Latin American faunal diversity is not known with the same precision, it follows, from the Association of animal species with the vegetables, that in Latin America they also inhabit the largest number of species of animals of all kinds on the planet. Surely, according to specialists, the same situation should prevail in what refers to freshwater fish; only in the Amazon basin have been classified 2 thousand different species, data without precedent in the world. The diversity and wealth of coastal ecosystems is also relevant in the continent. The longitudinal arrangement of the same, with the consequent variation of temperatures and ocean currents that looks exposed, determines that an immense variety of coastal regions of great ecological and economic value are located in Latin America. Thus, a large percentage of the world total of mangroves (key coastal areas (for the development and reproduction of marine species, amphibians, birds and terrestrial) and (ecosystem of great biological diversity and great vulnerability) coral reefs are located in Latin American waters us adds Salazar Cruz, tropical virgin forests of Mesoamerica and the Amazon basin, mangrove forests and the coral reefs of the Caribbean and other tropical areas, the Andes mountain ecosystems and coastal wetlands are some of the ecosystems most vulnerable to the effects of climate change.